WE LOOK FOR THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD,
AND THE LIFE OF THE WORLD TO COME
FOUR SERMONS IN EASTERTIDE, 2012
BISHOP BOB HALLIDAY
After death, what? – annihilation? or the survival of some invisible part of us? or what? People of all religions and none face this question in a way that is not simply intellectual: we are personally involved.
The Bible, the composition of which extended over more than a thousand years, includes diverse and successive answers to this question. When Jesus was growing up, Pharisees were arguing for (and Sadducees against) the reality of a life after death. The life and death and resurrection of Jesus mark the beginning of a new kind of hope. At the 10.45 a.m. service of Holy Communion, over the first four Sundays after Easter, Bishop Bob will be exploring in his sermons the emergence in the Bible of the hope expressed in the Nicene Creed.
April 15: The dead, whom you hold in mind no more (Psalm 88 v.4)
April 22: She’ol as the place of all the dead.
April 29: The first fruits of the harvest of the dead (1 Corinthians15 v.20).
May 6 (at Matins): As in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be brought to life (1 Cor. 15 v.22).
1. ABANDONED AMONG THE DEAD.. .WHO ARE CUT OFF FROM YOUR CARE (PSALM 88.4)
The Old Testament took shape over a period of more than a thousand years, in which time the Hebrew people underwent profound changes, passing from the Stone Age through the Bronze Age into the Iron Age. Originally following a nomadic way of life, driving their flocks and herds from place to place in search of feed for their animals, so that everything they had, including their religious shrine, had to be portable, they made the transition to a settled, agricultural way of life, living in villages, several of which were sacred centres of the cult of Yahweh, though later that was centralised at the stone Temple in Jerusalem. Politically, they retained memories of a patriarchal form of leadership through a time when they were debased into slavery in Egypt into a period when they became a powerful kingdom in Palestine, and on into a much longer period of being a subject-people of the successive great empires of the near east. Consequently the OT preserves many successive stages of Hebrew thinking, contains significant changes of view, and records, side by side, conflicting schools of thought. For example, there is sycophantic praise of the monarchy from court poets paid to produce it, and also passages of scathing prose emanating from prophetic circles that took a very dim view of the institution of monarchy and a highly critical attitude to the actions of particular kings. There are, too, polemical tracts for the times, like Ruth and Jonah, both written as protests against the narrow, racialist nationalism of Ezra-Nehemiah that failed to take account of God’s purpose for the Gentiles, created by the same God.
So on the subject of life after death (a subject of deep concern to people of all civilisations, ancient and modern) we find in the OT the reflections of a people who went on thinking about this subject for over a thousand years, and continued to do so in later Jewish literature. Their thoughts include a great diversity of philosophical inferences, theological opinions and acts of personal faith, and we must avoid imposing any facile unity on this rich diversity, just as we would avoid formulating “the British understanding of death.” Pursuing the story of Israel’s long enquiry into the subject will prove to be for us much more than an academic exercise: it will involve our own selves in a deeply personal way, a way the learned would call “existential.”
On one thing there is a consensus in the OT and not in the modern West. As Vrietzen has put it, “In Israel man is an animated body, or rather a body to which life has been given, and not, as in Greek philosophy, an eternal soul, enclosed in a body.” It may come as a shock to many modern people that the Bible offers no support whatever to the concept that some invisible bit of us survives death.
Notions of survival fail to take death seriously enough. “Life” is a better translation than “soul” of the Hebrew word NEPHESH. When a person’s life is poured out with his blood or exhaled with his last breath, the NEPHESH in departing ceases to be, leaving the body no longer alive. It is the whole human being the Bible deals with; neither the soul nor the body can live in separation from each other. Clearly, we shall have to come back to that later in this course!
For most of the OT period, death is regarded as part of the natural order created by God. Sudden death and premature death are calamities, but death in old age was regarded, says von Rad, as
“really a gracious fulfilment.” Ludwig Koehler sums up the dominant view: ‘In the providence of God death follows on life and in the providence of God death is the end. There is nothing more than what we know here on earth.” That is beyond controversy a fair statement of Hebrew belief about death. Few of us, however, could contemplate our own death with such detached equanimity; and Hebrew people, too, recoiled at the prospect of death, and expressed horror at its inevitability. Job, who so skillfully mocked conventional belief in his day, protests that humanity is worse off than the vegetable creation:
If a tree is cut down,
there is hope that it will sprout again
and fresh shoots will not fail.
Though its root becomes old in the earth,
its stump dying in the ground,
yet when it scents water it may break into bud
and make new growth like a young plant.
But when a human being dies all his power vanishes;
he expires, and where is he then? …
If a man dies, can he live again?
He can never be roused from this sleep. (Job 14, vv.7-10, 12).
Thus the totality and finality of death is recognised, though resented. Ecclesiastes, written perhaps in the third century B.C.E., complains that death is such a leveller that it obliterates distinctions that are precious, e.g. between wise and foolish, good and bad, so what’s the point of acquiring wisdom, when all is futility? (2.16f.) worse, “Human beings and beasts share one and the same fate: death comes to both alike (3.19). OT writers sometimes speak with wry humour of death the leveller as an antidote to human self-importance. Isaiah 14 has a superb poem on the death of the all-powerful king of Babylon: all the long-dead kings of earth’s little states are temporarily roused to come and see how even the mighty king of Babylon comes to nothing: All greet you with these words: “so you too are impotent as we are, and have become like one of us!” – a non-entity (Isaiah 14.10). Death makes nonsense of the distinctions human beings make among themselves: the only significant one is that between dead and living. Ecclesiastes puts it with mordant wit: “A live dog is better than a dead lion” (9.4).
One final feature of Hebrew thinking calls for attention this morning. Psalm 88 includes these striking words addressed to God:
I am numbered with those who go down to the abyss;
I have become like a man beyond help,
abandoned among the dead,
like the slain lying in the grave,
whom you hold in mind no more,
who are cut off from your care (Psalm 88.4).
The dead, evidently, are beyond the boundary of God’s sovereignty.
The worst horror of death for the Hebrews was that it cut them off from. God, whose loving-kindness was known only in the land of the living.
My brothers and sisters, there is such a thing as learning what you believe by reaction against what’s in the Bible. Most of us would have said that we just have vague hopes, and aren’t at all clear about life after death. But we have just discovered that, by contrast with most of the OT, we believe very firmly that there is absolutely nothing, not even death, that can cut a human being off from God, the Father of Jesus and our creator. And you now know that a lot more clearly than you thought you did – Step One in looking for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come!
2. SHE’OL AS THE PLACE OF ALL THE DEAD
“In Mesopotamia and Canaan… they envisaged the hereafter as a kind of shadowy existence in a vague underworld. Such a negative vision made of life after death a worthless copy of life on earth. In Egypt, on the other hand, a more positive conception prevailed. There the hereafter was envisaged as a festive continuation of this earthly life…. The Egyptians called the grave the house of eternity. Life on earth simply continued in the hereafter.”
So Jan H. Negenman in the New Atlas of the Bible. Indeed the Egyptians were obsessed with death. The rich spent huge sums equipping their tombs with the furniture and equipment that would ensure a luxurious afterlife. The poor, who could not make provision in this life for the next, presumably continued in eternity to be labour-saving devices for the rich. It is tempting to read Psalm 49 as a refreshing Hebrew comment on such a hope:
Do not envy anyone though he grows rich,
when the wealth of his family increases;
at his death he can take nothing,
for his wealth will not go down with him.
Though in his lifetime he counts himself happy
and he is praised in his prosperity,
he will go to join the company of his forefathers
who will never again see the light.
For human beings like oxen are short-lived;
they are like beasts whose lives are cut short. (Psalm 49.16-20)
The Greeks thought of a human person as fundamentally a spirit, regrettably imprisoned in a material body, so that the human being achieved fulfilment by dying, so liberating the spirit from the body that hampered it. This notion is fundamentally alien to the Biblical understanding that a human being is by God’s definition a bodily creature, and there’s nothing whatever regrettable about it. As we’ve seen, the Egyptians affirmed, in the teeth of all the evidence, the continuity of the after-life with this life.
All these lines of thought the early Hebrews spurned. In their view, human life was terminated and eliminated by death, and they dreaded death particularly because it involved losing touch with God, ceasing to experience in worship and life. Psalm 115 puts it in a nutshell:
It is not the dead who praise the Lord,
not those who go down to the silent grave;
but we, the living, shall bless the Lord
now and for evermore.
Praise the Lord.
It is not to be supposed that the Hebrews could live cheek-by-jowl with other religions and remain unaffected, nor that disloyalty to the religion of Yahweh was unknown. The searing condemnations of certain practices were uttered because people were doing them: secret participation in the pagan cult of the dead, dabbling in the occult, even the practice of necromancy, for example by the witch of Endor (1 Samuel 28.8-25), an offence punishable by death in Israel. Surely, however, such evidence reveals a measure of popular dissatisfaction in Israel with the mainline view that death is the total extinction of the individual. Strange as it may seem, the first tremulous protests against the official teaching took people away from the real God into pagan byways and blind alleys.
At what point, then, did the People of God begin to speak about a life after death? It’s very difficult to date it beyond saying, “late in the Biblical day.” But the point of departure is clear enough: it was the common Near Eastern concept of the underworld. Professor R.H.
Pfeiffer of Harvard explains:
“The prevailing notion among the Israelites corresponds to that of Western Asia after 3000 BC[E]. All the dead, without discrimination of race, nationality, religion, social position, and moral character, go to a dark, gloomy, underground enormous cave, called Kur-Nu-Ge-A (the land of no return) by the Sumerians, Arallu by the Babylonians… and She’ol by the Old Testament. The Hittites had the same notion of the abode of the dead, but its name is not known.”
There the departed eked out a most unattractive semi-existence which the late Bishop John Howe likened to “eating cold tapioca in the coal cellar.”
This is where development took place, in the way She’ol was pictured, and in three directions. First, the notion that shocked us last Sunday, that She’ol was beyond the scope of God’s activity, gave way before an increasing sense of the limitless sovereignty of God.
Nothing goes on anywhere that is hidden from the Creator of all that is. “She’ol and Abaddon lie open before the lord,” asserts Proverbs 15.11, and Job 26.5f pictures the underworld cringing from God’s holiness when he comes to inspect it. You cannot get away from God by hiding in She’ol – he can still put his hand on you there (Amos 9.2, cf. Psalm 139.7f).
The second direction of development was in the direction of morality and justice. Especially under the brutal tyranny of the Seleucid regime in the 2nd century BCE, horrible tortures were inflicted on men, women and children who refused to give up Jewish devotion to God. It was morally intolerable that their coming to so sticky an end should be the finish of them; surely the last word of eternal justice lay with God! Surely human history was moving towards a divinely designed consummation, at which fulfilment would replace frustration, and the wrongs of all the ages be righted, and the martyrs vindicated and rewarded, and their tormentors condemned and punished! In Jewish apocalyptic writings, with the exception of Daniel coming from the centuries subsequent to the OT, they openly expect either a resurrection of the righteous to a life of bliss with God in the last day, or else a general resurrection to reconstituted earthly life under the Reign of God, in which people enjoy or endure the consequences of the kind of life they had lived. Alas, there is a tendency for this kind of thinking to take one of two wrong turns, either into vindictiveness towards the haves of this world or into a petty, selfish, book-keeping approach to the problems of human conduct; but there is far more to this development than the occasional lapses into the smugness of the saved who think of themselves as a select minority, as if nothing more than that is to come of all God’s creating and redeeming activity.
The third direction in which the picture of She’ol was developed is this: that there is a future for those who go down to She’ol was a hope which grew out of the experience of trusting in God here and now. You and I still use, as true to our experience, the prayers in the Psalms of people who experienced God’s forgiveness and pour out their gratitude, of those who prayed in mortal danger and knew God as their saviour, of folk who in worship or prayer were simply swept off their feet into rapturous adoration of God. The loving-kindness of the Lord is daily, is ceaseless, is without limit, God’s patience, God’s grace, God’s mercies, God’s bountiful goodness are abundantly known and evoke paeans of praise. Isaiah of Jerusalem’s vision of God in the Temple is a classic passage because it expresses the experience of so many – deep awe that can hardly bear God’s coming near to us, combined with unspeakable joy in his presence. Is this knowledge of God that he has given us to come to an abrupt and total end at our death? Does not the God who gives himself to us in this life lead us to look expectantly to God for life with him after our death? As Vriezen has said,
“Faith in God as the lord of life, who performs miracles and rules everywhere, even in She’ol, was the root from which afterwards the belief in the resurrection… could spring.”
Any intuitions you and I have of a relationship with God beyond our death grow out of our present experience of trusting in God, do they not? Hope for that future is a function of faith in God now.
There is only one place in the OT where we find the vision that God purposes the abolition of death. Isaiah of Jerusalem is speaking of the victory banquet for all peoples when Gods purposes stand fulfilled:
On this mountain the Lord wilt destroy
that veil shrouding all the peoples,
the pall thrown over all the nations.
He will destroy death for ever. (Isaiah 25.7f)
Over our experience of this mortal life stands the shadow of She’ol’s dreadful NO. But the last word does not belong to She’ol. The last word belongs to God who made us, and in Christ he has uttered his Iife-giving YES.
3. THE FIRSTFRUITS OF THE HARVEST OF THE DEAD (1 CORINTHIANS 15.20)
Many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake, some to everlasting life, and some to the reproach of eternal abhorrence (Daniel 12.2).
And John Bright comments:
“Only in the book of Daniel is there evidence [within the OT] of the belief that both righteous and wicked will be raised up to everlasting life and everlasting shame respectively, and even here resurrection is selective, not universal. Down to the second century BC[E] other writers either knew nothing of such a belief, or explicitly denied it.”
Professor Bright refers to two Jewish apocalyptic works outside the OT – 1 Enoch and the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs – as evidence that “in the second century BC[E] and after, belief in a general resurrection and a final judgment gained the upper hand.” Thus the hope of an afterlife just gets into the OT and no more. It became prominent in Jewish belief in the period between the Old Testament and the New. It was controversial. Right into the lifetime of Jesus a vigorous debate was going on between Jews who passionately looked for the resurrection of the dead and Jews who dismissed this hope as wishful thinking, self-deception, an unbiblical flight of fancy. In 56 or 57 CE, St Paul was arrested in Jerusalem and put on trial before the Sanhedrin for preaching about Jesus. Paul, who was not born yesterday, and certainly had a sense of humour, set the cat among the pigeons by shouting,” My brothers, I am a Pharisee,a Pharisee born and bred, and the issue in this trial is our hope of the resurrection of the dead” (Acts 23.6). The account in Acts continues:
“At these words the Pharisees and Sadducees fell out among themselves, and the assembly was divided A great uproar ensued; and some of the scribes belonging to the Pharisaic party openly took sides and declared, ‘We find no fault with this man; perhaps an angel or spirit has spoken to him.’ In the mounting dissension, the commandant was afraid that Paul would be torn to pieces.”
So he sent in a snatch squad to get his prisoner out of the swirling mass of furious Jewish leaders (Acts 23.7-10).
So what had been the teaching of very nearly all of the OT, that death is the end for each individual, becomes from the 2nd century BCE the view of a conservative minority in Judaism. Among the majority, who (with much diversity of detail) looked for the resurrection of the dead, the concept of She’ol, the place of all the dead, underwent extensive modification. The Baptist scholar Dr D.S. Russell (a leading authority on Jewish apocalyptic writings) has pointed out three major changes in the way She’ol was pictured. Unlike the aT, these writers use the word “soul” and “spirit” to denote an entity having a real personal existence in separation from the body. “She’ol,” he says, “is no longer a land of no-life, as in the OT, but a land of conscious being and individual identity.’ The second development we’ve already seen in Daniel: the good are differentiated from the wicked and assigned to different quarters: for the good, pleasant, wooded surroundings in Paradise, while the wicked are accommodated in the smog of Gehenna.  The third development, Dr Russell tells us, “is that now She’ol is regarded, in most of these books at any rate, as an intermediate state where the souls of humans await the resurrection and the final judgment:” when God will bring freedom to the downtrodden and justice to the oppressed of all the ages.
Jesus often employed humour in his teaching. But St Luke has passed on to us the only funny story told at the expense of Jesus. The Sadducees had heard that this amateur rabbi from Galilee shared with these pipe-dreaming Pharisees belief in an afterlife, so they spun him the yarn of the woman who, when her husband died without issue, married his oldest surviving brother (the custom of levirate marriage), and when he died married the next brother, and so on till she had married all seven brothers in succession. Won’t this be awfully awkward in this resurrection life you’re peddling? Which of the seven will be her husband then? – a delightful take-off of the kind of pictures drawn from earthly life which is the only way human beings can think at all about life after death. On this occasion the Sadducees got more than they bargained for: Jesus, spoke, not as one engaging in speculation, not as one offering an opinion, but as one who is telling them the truth of God. When God revealed himself to Moses, he pointed out, God called himself the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, all of whom had died several centuries before the time of
Moses.” God is not the God of the dead, but of the living; for him all are alive” (Lk 20.38) – good OT teaching from which a revolutionary conclusion is drawn: the Patriarchs are alive with God.
All this was known to those who, with the Apostles, became witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus, about which three things must be said. (1) The resurrection of Jesus proves nothing. God has taken good care that the resurrection of Jesus is not scientifically verifiable. That Jesus is alive and present can be known only by faith. That’s the way God wants it. (2) To those whom the risen Jesus convinced that he was alive again, the resurrection was gloriously good news about Jesus rather than about us. It is seen primarily in the NT as God’s vindication of Jesus as Messiah of Israel, Son of God and Lord of all. But (3) the resurrection of Jesus is the decisive breakthrough to life after death for us. For the followers of Jesus, the resurrection of the dead is no longer a controversial theory, but a God-given reality. The First Letter of Peter exults,
“Praised be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! In his great mercy, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, he gave us new birth into a living hope, the hope of an inheritance preserved in heaven for you, which nothing can destroy or spoil or wither” (1 Peter 1.3f.).
The risen Jesus is the Church’s head and origin, says Colossians, not in the sense of the founder of an institution, but as “the first to return from the dead” (Colossians1.18), the Pioneer of the resurrection life we are all to share. In 1 Corinthians15 St Paul takes to task some Christians who seem to have shared the outlook of the Sadducees, and writes, “If it is for this life only that Christ has given us hope, we [Christians] of all humans are most to be pitied. But the truth is, Christ was raised to life, the first fruits of the harvest of the dead” (1 Corinthians15.19f.) The dead have a future – a future life – though at present only those humans who have faith in Christ are sure of this.
How the early Christians, and St Paul in particular, worked out the effect of this fact on the pictures inherited from Judaism, we shall see in the final instalment at Matins next Sunday!
4. AS IN ADAM ALL DIE, SO IN CHRIST WILL ALL BE BROUGHT TO LIFE (1 CORINTHIANS 15.22).
The New Testament is dominated from end to end by the hope of the Day of the Lord, the consummation of God’s purposes, the climax of all history, the full coming on earth of the Reign of God. In referring to Kingdom come on earth, the NT writers employ a variety of symbolic pictures taken over from Jewish apocalyptic writings: earthquakes ending the present civilisation; a universal open court of justice where the earth’s little ones will be awarded damages against all who have practised oppression; the biggest battle the world has ever seen, when God wins eternal victory over the forces of evil; the appearing of the Lord’s anointed king in the clouds of God’s glory (a la Ezekiel); a vast banquet for all God’s people, celebrating the inauguration of the Messiah’s reign; the daylight of God’s holiness permanently dispersing this world’s darkness. All these images the cranks on the lunatic fringe of Christianity try to arrange in order like a programme for Highland Games; but they are just different pictorial symbols for one and the same thing, the fulfilment of God’s purposes for Creation, which Jesus called the Reign of God.
The early Christians expected this fulfilment to come very soon – so soon that St Paul thought it was a shocking waste of time for engaged couples to get married (1 Corinthians 7.25-38) – so the problem of individual death that harrows us is not central in the NT, but is peripheral to the hope of the Reign of God. When it dawned on the Christians that this hope was not going to be fulfilled immediately, several adjustments had to take place in Christian thinking. One of the problems the delay raised was this: the deaths of Christians, multiplied by persecutions, had to be related somehow or other to the final victory now delayed. In an early letter, 1 Thessalonians, St Paul employs Jewish apocalyptic images (trumpet call, clouds of glory), but he uses them to assure the shaken Thessalonians that Christians who die before the denouement have not lost out, but will participate along with those who are still alive: “We believe that Jesus died and rose again; so too God will bring those who died as Christians to be with Jesus”(1 Thessalonians 4.14, cf. 5.10).
What a difference there is between the OT’s tenet that those who go down to She’ol cease to have any knowledge of God, and St Paul’s expression about sleeping until the time comes to live in the company of Jesus. Exactly how St Paul understood this will never be clear to us, because he never got it clear for himself! We Christians, sharing with each other in the Christian life, have real anticipations of the Reign of God, though it’s a matter of now you see it, now you don’t. All Christians await and yearn for the fulfilment of our prayer, “your kingdom come, your will be done, on earth as in heaven.” We have fleeting experiences now of the glory that is yet to be; and St Paul apparently thought that, if we die before it comes, we are in some kind of suspended animation in the interval – in Christ’s keeping, but less of a life than we have now, let alone then.
But this same wonderful man, when he was facing his own imminent death, instinctively thought differently, and put his finger on it in a way that has helped Christians ever since. In what was probably the last letter he wrote, he calmly discusses with his beloved Philippians how likely it is that he will survive the very great danger he is in, on trial in Rome by an anti-Christian court. He is ready to die, if the time has come. Given free choice, he ought to opt for further service to the Church; but he really would rather have the other: “for to me life is Christ, and death is gain… My own desire is to depart and be with Christ- that is better by far” (Philippians1.21, 23). But he’s needed so much that he thinks God means him to come through the present peril and go on working for the Church. He was wrong. He was condemned to death and executed. My point is that when it comes to the crunch he has got beyond the pictures inherited from Judaism. He doesn’t expect to sleep till the great Day, but to be more directly and fully and gloriously aware of he risen Jesus than he has been during his lifetime. And he’d said the same kind of thing to the Christians in Rome shortly before: “I am convinced that there is nothing in death or life… nothing in all creation that can separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus Our Lord” (Romans 8.38f.).
Now, the only way you and I can talk about an afterlife that’s genuinely human is in the language drawn from present experience: “see” implies eyes; “remember” implies memory; “recognise” implies that the other person looks much as he or she did at some point prior to their death. Yet we know that memory and sight and emotions perish with the cessation of the brain’s activity at death. Resurrection is not survival. Nothing of us survives death. Resurrection is the reconstitution by God of recognizably the same person, no doubt transfigured by grace, forgiveness and fulfilment.
So we may ask, as some of the Christians at Corinth critically asked St Paul, “How are the dead raised? In what kind of body?” (1 Corinthians 15.35). 2nd-century Christian writers insisted that God revivifies the corpse, re-assembling the scattered molecules of each person’s body. The trouble with that view is that the scattered molecules in the course of time have been parts of many different humans in succession, posing a problem about who the rightful owner is! St Paul gave a quite different and far better answer. Just look at the great variety of modes of being that God has invented – humans, animals, birds, fish, plants – each kind with its own distinctive kind of life-kit. Let’s not get into arguments based on mere speculation. Let’s leave it to God to devise a life-kit corresponding to the body, appropriate for the life of the Age to Come under the Reign of God. Our inability to imagine it is no argument against the reality under God of the resurrection life of humans. St Paul held that we shall be like Christ, yet recognizably ourselves (Philippians 3.21; cf. 2 Corinthians 5.1-5, 1 Jn 3.2).
The New Testament, then, teaches us to trust the God whom we gladly worship here and now to fulfil his promise in Christ of life after death. This resurrection life is for all human beings, not just for Christians: “As in Adam all [humans] die, so in Christ will all be brought to life” (1 Corinthians 15.22). The distinctive thing about the Christians is that they are the ones who already believe in the resurrection of the dead, not as a scientific deduction, nor as information imparted in advance to the Church, but arising out of our faith in God, without which people don’t share this hope. In the Nicene Creed, it is after affirming our faith in God, Creator and Father, and in Jesus, the pioneer of resurrection, and in the Holy Spirit, the giver of life, that we say, “We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come.”
Let us Pray: Almighty and everliving God, in tender love for all our human race you sent your Son our Saviour Jesus Christ to take our flesh and suffer death upon a cruel cross. May we follow the example of his great humility and share in the glory of his resurrection, through Jesus Christ our Lord, who is alive and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever. AMEN.
(Collect for Palm Sunday: Liturgy of the Passion)
 Th.C. Vriezen, An Outline of Old Testament Theology, p.201
 Gerhard Von Rad, Old Testament Theology, vol. 1, p.390.
 Ludwig Koehler, Old Testament Theology, p.150.
 Von Rad, op. cit., p.277.
 Jan H. Negenman, New Atlas of the Bible, pp.42/44.
 R.H. Pfeiffer, Religion in the Old Testament, p.104.
 T.C. Vriezen, An Outline of Old Testament Theology; p.204.
 John Bright, A History of Israel, pp438f.
 D.S. Russell, l71e Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic, p. 359.
 op. cit, pp. 360, 364.
 op. cit, pp. 360, 364.